Cleaning For Health

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Pathogen Chart

Pathogen Type Location Symptoms Microbe Survival Mode of transmission How to inactivate Additional Notes
Acinetobacter Gram-negative bacterium. In drinking and surface waters and foods. Dust-associated: can be found on rarely cleaned and inaccessible surfaces and on frequent hand-touch sites. Can contaminate air conditioning systems. Infections include pneumonia bacteraemia (blood infection), wound infection, urinary tract infections. 3days-5mnths Direct and indirect contact, airborne. Electrolysed water, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide vapour/aerosol.
Aspergillus Aerobic fungal spores In soil, water, and decaying vegetation; the organism also survives well in air, dust, and moisture. Absorbent building materials (e.g., wallboard), often found around building construction sites. Can cause abscesses of the lungs, brain, liver, spleen and kidneys, thrombosis of deep blood vessels, necrotizing skin ulcers, endophthalmitis, sinusitis, pneumonia, ulcerative tracheobronchitis, pneumonitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, primary skin and burn-wound infections. Several months in water Airborne, direct and indirect contact. Wet mopping and vacuuming to remove dust from the environment. HEPA filtration. The use of a biocide, such as chlorine bleach, is not recommended as a routine practice as a background level of mould spores will remain in the air. These spores will continue to grow until the moisture problem in the building has been resolved.
Clostridium difficile Anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium and can form bacterial spores. Shed in faeces and contaminates toilet areas. Any surface, object, or material (e.g., bathroom faucets, light switches, towels) that becomes contaminated with faeces may serve as a reservoir for the C.difficile spores. Watery diarrhoea, fever, loss of appetite, nausea and abdominal pain or tenderness. Up to 5 months on a dry surface Direct and indirect contact, droplet contact, airborne. Spore production can increase when exposed to nonchlorine-based cleaning agents. Dilute solutions of hypochlorite (1,600 ppm available chlorine). The elderly are particularly susceptible to acquiring C.diff infection, and they become the most ill. Care home and hospice settings should be rigorously cleaned and disinfected.
Community Associated MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus In close-contact settings such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households. It is a dust-associated microbe and can be found on rarely cleaned and inaccessible surfaces, such as shelves, in computer keyboards, behind radiators, in soft furniture and frequent hand-touch sites such as door handles. Minor skin and soft tissue infections such as impetigo, absesses. In severe cases necrotizing fasciitis or pyomyositis(most commonly found in the tropics), necrotizing pneumonia, infective endocarditis (which affects the valves of the heart), or bone or joint infections. MRSA can survive on a dry surface for 7 days to 7 months. Direct and indirect contact. Alcohols, sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium compounds, phenolics, and iodophors at recommended use dilutions for environmental surface disinfection. Dust removal through vacuuming and wet mopping. CA-MRSA has high colonization and infection abilities as it can infect healthy people as well as the more vulnerable. Groups most affected by CA-MRSA are children and adolescents through skin to skin contact. Extra attention needed in gyms, prisons, schools, nurseries and university campuses.
Cryptosporidium (C. parvum) Protozoan parasites Found in soil, food, water and on surfaces that have been contaminated with infected human or animal faeces such as in bathrooms. Also found in recreational water such as swimming pools. Watery diarrhoea, stomach pains, dehydration, weight loss and fever which can last for up to three weeks but it can affect people with weak immune systems for much longer. Several months in moist soil or water Faecal-oral, direct and indirect contact. 6% and 7.5% hydrogen peroxide.In pools, water parks, and interactive fountains hyperchlorinate can be used. The parasite is not stable in air and drying alone will greatly reduce C.parvum populations by ~99.98% in 30 minutes.  Cryptosporidiosis is most common in children aged between 1 and 5 years and the elderly. Extra care should be taken when decontaminating nurseries, crèches and care and nursing homes.
Escherichia coli Gram-negative bacterium In close-contact settings such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households. Can cause severe diarrhoea which can be bloody and abdominal cramps. 1.5 hours – 16 months on a dry surface Faecal-oral, direct and indirect contact. Quaternary ammonium compounds, phenols, hypochlorite solution (1:10 dilution of 5.25% bleach), and ethanol in ~30 seconds.superoxidised water at 23oC in 10minutes.
Hand foot and mouth disease (Coxsackievirus) Non-enveloped linear positive-sense ssRNA virus. In close-contact settings such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households. The infection is spread by contact with discharges and faeces via paper tissues, handkerchiefs, nappies, saliva on hands and toys etc. Sore throat, runny nose, fever, loss of appetite and a blister like rash on the hands, feet and mouth. >2 weeks Faecal-oral, direct and indirect contact. Sodium hypochlorite 5.25%. The infection most frequently affects children under 3 years of age in nursery or crèche settings, therefore these environments will need extra attention.
Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium. In close-contact settings such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households.The infection is spread by contact with discharges and faeces via paper tissues, handkerchiefs, nappies, saliva on hands and toys etc In some cases ulcers can develop in the stomach (gastric ulcers) or in the duodenum (part of the small intestine. H. pylori is the most important cause of such ulcers. ≤ 90 minutes Faecal-oral, direct and indirect contact. Ethanol (80%) in 15 seconds and sodium hypochlorite (150 ppm) in 30 seconds. H. pylori is the most important cause of stomach and intestinal ulcers.
Hepatitis A Viral infection In close-contact settings such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households. A fever, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, jaundice. <16 hours Faeces-oral, direct and indirect contact. A quaternary ammonium formulation containing 23% HCL (toilet bowl cleaner) and sodium hypochlorite (>5000 ppm).
Influenza i.e. H1N1 and H5N1 In close-contact settings such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households. Feeling feverish, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, fatigue. Some people may have vomiting and diarrhoea. In faeces for several months and in water for up to 4 days. Direct and indirect contact, airborne and droplet contact. Heat (167-212°F), sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, iodophors used according to the manufacturers recommendations. Includes H1N1 and H5N1 viruses.
Norovirus Non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses In close-contact settings such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households. Acute onset, non-bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps. Low-grade fever and body aches also might be associated with infection. 8 hours and 7 days on a dry surface Direct and indirect contact, faecal-oral contact. Ethyl alcohol (70%) in 30 seconds.Sodium hypochlorite (1000ppm) in 1 minute. Hydrogen peroxide, (5,000 ppm) in 3 min; 79% ethanol with 0.1% quaternary ammonium compound in 3 mins and a mixture of four quaternary ammonium compounds, 2,470 ppm in 10 min. Noroviruses are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis, responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, and a major cause of food-borne illness.
Rotavirus Double-stranded RNA virus. In close-contact settings such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households. Rotavirus can be spread by contaminated hands, objects (toys, surfaces), air, food and water. Severe watery diarrhoea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. 6 – 60 days on a dry inanimate surface. Faecal-oral, direct and indirect contact. 95% ethanol, 70% isopropanol, some phenolics and some quaternary ammonium compounds all in 1 minute. A disinfectant spray (0.1% ortho-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), sodium hypochlorite (800 ppm free chlorine), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tapwater) all in 3-10 minutes. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide and it can lead to dehydration. Globally, it causes more than a half a million deaths each year in children younger than 5 years of age. Extra attention needed in nurseries and crèches.
SARS (Coronavirus) Single-stranded RNA virus. In close-contact settings, such as transport systems, schools, nurseries, prisons, gyms, offices and within households. High fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, pneumonia. SARS may be associated with other symptoms, including headache, muscular stiffness, loss of appetite, malaise, confusion, rash and diarrhoea. 3 hours on a dry surface. Airborne, direct and indirect contact, droplet contact. Sodium hypochlorite (1,000- 5,000 ppm), 70% ethyl alcohol, and povidone-iodine (1% iodine) are all effective after a 1-minute contact time. Coronaviruses are also thought to cause one third of common colds.

Pathogen Chart (in Japanese, PDF) – 病原体図表